SSCU 3623 – Research Methodology & Information Retrieval (2021)

Research Methodology & Information Retrieval (SSCU 3623 – Sem 2 – 2020/2021) | link to Facebook | link to GD |

 Writing the Literature Review

Dear students, you need to submit a project on the literature review. This is based on continuous assessment and course information of SSCU 3623 written by Dr. Lee Siew Ling (Course coordinator). This is a group assignment based 10 groups you have been created previously. 

Write a review based on published my published papers on the concept of “Phase-boundary catalysis” below.

Below is the template

Please submit your review to me the latest on 24 June 2021.e-mail:

Who is scientist?

Problem statement structure

Data fallacies to avoid


A statement of the problem is used in research work as a claim that outlines the problem addressed by a study. The statement of the problem briefly addresses the question: What is the problem that the research was addressed in the following researches (presented in the video):

(1) Yttria stabilized zirconia thin film; (2) Magnetic field-induced alignment polybenzimidazole; (3) Carbon-containing coated stainless steel; and (4) Fuel cell educational kit.

Submit your assignment before or on Sunday, 2 May 2021, to the mail inbox of Facebook group SSCU 3623.

Research examples


A problem statement is a concise description of an issue to be addressed or a condition to be improved upon. It identifies the gap between the current (problem) state and desired (goal) state of a process or product. It is important to note that the problem statement does not define the solution or methods of reaching the solution. The problem statement simply recognizes the gap between the problem and goal states. Before the problem statement can be crafted, the problem must be defined. It is human nature to want to begin working on a solution as soon as possible and neglecting the definition of the true problem to be solved. However, a poorly defined problem increases the risk of implementing a solution that does not fully meet the expected results. A problem cannot be solved if it is not completely understood.

Yttria stabilized zirconia thin film

Many researchers used the liquid-vapor method for the preparation of deposition, such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD), to produce YSZ nano-thin film as an electrolyte. There is an interesting finding of the successful deposition of RF magnetron sputtering due to its ability to deposit high melting point oxides at relatively low substrate temperatures. So far, the deposition rate using RF magnetron sputtering is very low, and therefore difficult to produce a completed dense-thin film. In this study, RF magnetron sputtering is hypothesized to produce an innovative modification because the vacuum-assisted deposition process technique for depositing a thin-film material atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule onto a solid structure can be conducted in a chamber. As a result, the outcome of this research should lead to an understanding of the growth of YSZ phases and the morphological structure of thin-film for electrolyte characterization.

Magnetic field-induced alignment polybenzimidazole

In this research, the main objectives are to demonstrate the magnetic-field alignment of polybenzimidazole (PBI) by the exploitation of the aromatic ring presence in the monomer unit under 0.3 Tesla magnetic field and investigating the effect of the aligned PBI on its proton conductivity performance. PBI is an amorphous polymer with an aromatic group per repeating unit. It is widely used as the proton exchange membrane (PEM) to transport the positive charge ions from anode to cathode to produce energy in the high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFC) application. The ideal PEM should possess direct transportation channels for the proton. Through aligned PEM, the pathways could be reduced and resulted in high proton conductivity. As mentioned before, the presence of the aromatic group in the polymer is expected to orient the molecular structure of the polymer toward the direction of the magnetic field. Thus, it looks reasonable to hypothesize that the arrangement of the polymer chains of PBI could be altered by a 0.3 Tesla magnetic field and increase the proton conductivity of the membrane.

Carbon-containing coated stainless steel

Powder coating is a method that applies coating with thermoset polymer powders. Thermoset resins are mainly used as an adhesive for metal substrates. These resins face a high amount of shrinkage due to their low thermal stability. Additionally, this has caused low adhesion of coating, as well as weak physical and chemical stability. Thus, to overcome this drawback, much work has been done in finding good alternative materials with good properties for wear-resistant coating formation. In order to solve these problems, an approach that uses powder coating to obtain a good coating quality by the incorporation of additives should be developed. The modification of carbon attached with TiO2 in controlled heating temperature has been carried out to obtain a high resistance coating. The heating process without the presence of oxygen has been introduced in order to produce pyrolytic carbon as it is a very stable form of carbon with the characteristic of a good adsorbent. The purpose of the incorporation of TiO2 in the modification of carbon-based material is to enhance the adhesion of coating that leads to high resistance coating. The hard coating of C/TiO2 on stainless steel can be a useful platform in further applications. Hence, this study uses HVPSC in order to prepare wear-resistant C/TiO2 coated on stainless steel. The research questions of this study are the following. Can C/TiO2 be successfully coated on a metal surface using HVPSC? Is C/TiO2 coating wearable and produces a high resistance coating?

Fuel cell educational kit

The availability of energy reserves, and also the energy needs, in particular, it is necessary to increase awareness for the children of high school students to recognize renewable energy in the form of fuel cells. Certainly need a separate way to introduce fuel cell technology to high school students. One easy way is to use learning media. In this study, the learning media offered are in the form of fuel cell kits equipped with augmented reality technology. Augmented reality (AR) can be said as a technology used by computer graphics representing real objects. AR can also be translated as a technology that allows users to see the real world through virtual objects. There are three aspects needed in designing AR, namely, a combination of real and virtual worlds; interactive relationships in real-time; and 3D shape visualization. In addition to these three things, another thing to consider is portability or the ability to be used in a wide range of motion space. AR displays visualization in the form of digital content over the media used through marker detection. AR technology, Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) and Mobile Learning (ML) are several technologies that can be integrated with learning. This learning tool is able to create a new learning innovation environment that is more interesting and fun for high school students.

Research proposal writing example

Research proposal

Type of scientific publications

Information retrieval

Scientific writing

Scientific method

Muslim philosopher

History of science

The basis of scientific research

The first lecture

Informal conversation with students

This semester, I met with 77 students in my Research Methodology course face-to-face online informally—one hour of fun meeting.

Group 1 interview

Group 2 interview

Group 3 interview

Group 4 interview

Group 5 interview

Group 6 interview

Group 7 interview

Group 8 interview

Group 9 interview

Group 10 interview

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